Sunday, 3 April 2016


This assignment comprises of several parts. The first part of the coursework describes about the problems faced by Hassan. It then proceeds to discuss the one possible theory that is able to help Hassan to achieve his fullest self-potential. The following part concerns about two counselling techniques that can assist Hassan in attending his problem. The last part of this coursework discusses about the basic counselling skills that will be used by Hassan’s counsellor.  Relevant examples and citations are provided in this discussion.

            Hassan is a bright student who has just got transferred to an elite school in town. Hassan has to present his History assignment soon. He feels nervous and is worried because he always has this thought that ‘I must obtain high scores in my presentation as I have always achieved the highest marks in presentation in my former school.’ You are a guidance teacher conforming to the five outcomes of the system aspiration in the Malaysian Education System as stated in the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Explain how you will be able to help Hassan in overcoming his feelings of nervousness and worries caused by these irrational thoughts.
            2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
            Based on the given case, Hassan is facing the problem of nervousness and worries caused by his irrational thoughts. He might feel different to how he used to feel. The new environment and being in the elite school make him feels more nervous as the expectation is high at this kind of school. Students always have this problem whenever they enter new school or knowing that they are competing with other students where it becomes a difficult situation for them as they are lack of motivation and low self-esteem. Most of the time, without proper care and help from experts student like Hassan will have the irrational thoughts that will then take over him and in the end caused him to be anxious all the time. Consequently he may not be able to manage to do his task effectively as well as affect his performance in the long run. In the context of this situation, Hassan is in need of help from guidance teacher to resolve his irrational thoughts.

Figure 1: The five system aspiration in the Malaysian Education System

            The five outcomes of the system aspiration in the Malaysian Education System as stated in the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 is strategic plans for developing the students and to help teachers at the school become a role model for the children to build self-confidence of students in addition to counseling services that can help students solve a problem. Additionally, counseling services provided can have a significant impact in generating prosperity of human capital in terms of emotions, thoughts and actions in order to contribute to the success of the Education Development Plan 2013-2025. Curricular and co-curricular activities at school is geared toward individuals who are skilled, balanced, achieving high professional level of seriousness to develop national educational aspect. This also indicates the teaching profession in Malaysian education system as the driving force of development; especially in achieving a developed nation status and high income economy by 2020.
“The purpose of education in Malaysia is to enable Malaysian society to have a command of the knowledge, skills, and values necessary in a world that is highly competitive and globalised, arising from the impact of rapid development in science, technology, and information.”
Preamble to the Education Act (1996)

Students who have the knowledge and skills at the world par excellent, as well as have high sense of values in oneself, and able to compete with other students are of the impact of the PPPM. Based on the plan, the possible impact from such students, they are more likely to learn and succeed in the field they are in. Besides, they also will learn from the environment where there is a belief that they have the freedom to speak and voice their thoughts. Students also will have the opportunity to learn from every aspect not only in academic but in school projects and group works. By referring to the plan, the impact also has on the teachers where they will enjoy the work as evaluation process is transparent and fair and linked to relevant capabilities and performance.
This case discussion is also one of the challenges faced by teachers today in developing a person in holistic manner and can strive in any problems in order to produce a productive citizen. Such challenge faced by guidance teacher in school today to improve the quality of education in Malaysia. Based on the problems faced by Hassan, the suitable counselling theory that can be applied to help Hassan to achieve his fullest potential is the Person-Centered Theory. This theory is also known as person centered therapy or client centered therapy. This theory may help Hassan to achieve his self-potential and resolve his nervousness and irrational thoughts. Teachers must make use of this theory in order for Hassan to realize of his true self potential and reality of life. This awareness requires considerable effort from Hassan to solve the problems. As normal human being, Hassan is just like others as well who will continuously strive to improve himself in the process of achieving self-perfection. Generally, people never feel satisfied with his level of performance. Thus he needs help in terms of motivation to achieve his self-actualization.

            According to Palmer, S. (2000), this theory is classified under the humanistic approaches. Humanistic therapies evolved in the USA during the 1950s. Carl Rogers proposed person-centered or client-centered therapy in his first book Counseling and Psychotherapy which was published in 1942. Rogers started the therapy to his client’s experiences. Mearns and Thorne (1988) stated that Rogers view differs sharply from psychodynamic and behavioural approaches that he suggested that clients would be better helped if they were encouraged to focus on their current subjective understanding rather than on other motives or other’s interpretation of the situation. This theory also proposed that people tend to describe their current experiences by referring to themselves in some way, for example, “I don’t understand what’s happening” or “I feel different to how I used to feel”. Similarly to the Hassan’s case where he has this irrational thoughts where he need to strive the best for his presentation until he feel worried and nervous and this will lead to doubt to his self-potential. Hassan is no longer confident the way he was before.  
            Hassan has set in his mind that he has to present very strongly and get high marks for his History assignment presentation. He has his own aims and goals. This situation makes him stuck. Referring to Rogers’ (1959) theory, it is the notion of self or self-concept which is defined as “the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself.” This shows that it consists of all the ideas and values that characterize ‘I’ and ‘me’ and includes perception and valuing of ‘what I am’ and ‘What I can do’.
This can relate to Hassan’s case where he is nervous and worried as he is too ambitious to get high marks for his presentation where he perceives himself confident and may well behave confident yet come to see his actions are otherwise. He is too overwhelmed by his goals until he is worried and nervous. Consequently, the self-concept is a central component of our total experience and influences both the perception of the world and perception of oneself.
Person-Centered therapy emphasizes the person’s innate striving for self-actualization and the quality of therapeutic relationship between the counsellor and the client. This theory also proposes that people are capable of self-directed growth if involved in a therapeutic relationship.
On top of that, this theory serves as a way for guidance teacher to cater problems like Hassan’s case as the general goals are to increase personal choice and to create new conditions for learning. Through this theory, guidance teacher can help Hassan by giving him a positive and deep caring sense as well as enable Hassan to learn to resolve his irrational thoughts. As a guidance teacher, this theory also gives opportunity to provide rationale for goals, explain roles of goals, purposes of goals and the client’s participation in the goal setting process. By referring to Hassan’s case, he is in need of help, and only he can make the changes in his life, whether he wants to be confident and put away his thoughts so that he can be calm and focus for his assignment presentation. A good and calm state of mind will boost the way he performs and will reduce the risk of being nervous as well as he may present very well for his assignment.
            Additionally, this theory is a non-directive as it is a counselling approach that requires the client to take an active role in his treatment while the therapist being nondirective and supportive. In person-centered therapy, the client determines the course and direction of treatment while the therapist clarifies the client's responses to promote self-understanding. The goals of client-centered therapy are increased self-esteem and openness to experience.
Furthermore, according to McLeod (2008) this theory helps client to lead full lives of self-understanding, reduction in defensiveness, guilt, and insecurity as well as more positive and comfortable relationships with others and an increased capacity to experience and express their feelings. What is most important in person-centered therapy is the quality of the relationship between the therapist and the client.
Based on Hassan’s case, he is in a state of incongruence, meaning there is a difference between how he sees himself and reality. Having an accurate self-concept (the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs people have about themselves) is the key to person-centered therapy. For example, Hassan is having the thought of he must strive high marks for the assignment presentation at the new school, and this thought leads him to be nervous and worry. It is the hope of this therapy to help Hassan reaches a state of congruence (a match between self-concept and reality; for people to see themselves as they actually are). For example, if a Hassan thinks he can do better for the presentation, he would not doubt himself when it comes to presenting the assignment. This indicates that he is congruence with his self-concept. In person-centered therapy, the teacher or counsellor does not attempt to change the client's thinking in any way. The guidance teacher merely facilitates self-actualization by providing a comfortable environment for Hassan to freely engage in focused, in-depth self-exploration.
Based on Rogers (1951), he also challenged the validity of therapeutic procedures applicable at that time, namely in terms of advising, giving  opinion, lead, persuade, teach, assess and make interpretations. Hassan’s nervousness and worries because of irrational thoughts should be assisted by providing advice that not all things or what we do must be followed with excellent results. Hassan was an excellent student in presentation at his former school, so when he is in elite school, he sees other students as a major challenge and competitors. The underlying assumption of this theory is that people are trustworthy and have huge potential to understand themselves and solve their own problems. Hassan who has high self-confidence led him to work hard and get excellent marks, but he would be disappointed if the results are not as what he is expecting.  
Moreover, this theory is focused on individual counseling and psychotherapy in which the counsellors are able to help a student like Hassan rebuild confidence and discard any nervousness and irrational thinking. This theory was later developed into a systematic theory of personality and practiced in individual counseling. This approach was later converted into a Client Centrered Therapy (Rogers, 1951). This theory is not just solving problems encountered or experienced at the time, but what is more important is to achieve a sense of freedom and self-actualization for the individual. The purpose of counseling is to help students in their development process, so that they can cope with current problems and issues in the future.
In this theory, there are several techniques employed. However the techniques used in this therapy are different from those employed in other therapies. The techniques are used by the counsellors to create an environment that facilitates the process of self-awareness, but in other therapies the counsellors use techniques that focus on what the clients do during the therapy session. In this theory, the techniques proposed are such as congruence in counselling, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. The techniques mentioned will be discussed further in the next part of the coursework in relation to Hassan’s case.

            Rogers believes that, under nurturing conditions a client will be able to move forward and resolve their own issues. The techniques used in this theory are different from other theories. This part will discuss two counseling techniques; unconditional positive regard and empathy in relation to the Person-Centered Theory.
Figure 2: The two counseling techniques in relation to the Person-Centered Theory

            Unconditional positive regard is one of the techniques that can assist Hassan in attending his problem. Unconditional positive regard refers to the therapist accepting, respecting and caring about clients (Seligman, 2006). This technique is referring to the therapist acceptance and caring, but not approval of all behaviour.
This technique also refers to the counsellor’s deep and genuine caring for the client. The counsellor may not approve of some of the client’s actions but the he or she does accept the client. Thus in this case, counsellor needs to accept Hassan as he is. To make this therapy successful, the counsellor needs to be careful to always maintain a positive attitude to Hassan, even when disgusted by his actions.
By using this technique, the counsellor needs to accept Hassan’s reality with kindness and not being judgemental towards him. It is normal to feel nervous and worried. This feeling indicates that Hassan is aware of his work and assignment and need to face the challenge. However, the feelings that he feels must not take over him until affecting his performance. To be ambitious is fine as long as he can manage anxiety problem.  
The counsellor must help Hassan by accept that he is nervous because he is facing the new situation where he needs to struggle in order to maintain his performance. At the same time, what advice can the counsellor give to him is, our performance it is not depends on how well we were before but what he needs to know is he has to get ready for his assignment well. Besides if he is well prepared in terms of the input to be presented, he will get the confidence and will obtain high marks if he presents it clearly and in calmer manner.
Even so, it does not mean the counsellor has to agree with everything Hassan says or does, however see him as he is doing the best he can and demonstrate this by expressing concern rather than disapproving with him. This technique allows Hassan to express how he is thinking without feeling judged, and help to facilitate the change process by showing he can be accepted.
According to the theory teacher should try not to give too much solution to student like Hassan as the decisions or solution is remains in the hands of himself. Therefore guidance teacher is just becoming the adviser and mentor because all the final decisions are dependent on Hassan himself. Teachers will help Hassan build confidence and remove all the nervousness and irrational thoughts simply because he decides to score high marks in his presentation. This causes Hassan more depressed if the result is not meet his expectations.

Empathy is the ability to understand what the client is feeling and emotions. This refers to the therapist’s ability to understand sensitively and accurately but not sympathetically towards the client’s experience and feelings in the here-and-now. Being sympathy is different as it is often seen as feeling sorry for the client whereas empathy is the understanding and being in the client’s conditions as well as allows client to further open up (Seligman, 2006).
The person-centered therapist is appropriate to encourage improvements in the client's self-psychological adjustment. As we can see, Hassan is a student who is confident, however, limited by its own irrational thoughts which create the conditions of nervousness and worries. Through a proper handling using this technique, Hassan can improve his confidence and self-esteem. According to Mearns & Thorne (1988), studies have confirmed the importance of the contribution of empathy, respect and authenticity in the counseling process. Thus as a guidance teacher I should show empathy so that Hassan will feel he a bit relief as someone understand what he is going through a rough time.
The most important part of being empathy is counsellor or teacher must follow precisely what the client is feeling and in order to communicate with them that the counsellor must first understands what they are feeling. Below are the words of Rogers (1975) of accurate empathic understanding:
“If I am truly open to the way life is experienced by another person..if I can take his or her world into mine, then I risk seeing life in his or her way…and of being changed myself, and we all resist change. Since we all resist change, we tend to view the other person’s world only in our terms, not in his or hers. Then we analyse and evaluate it. We do not understand their world. But, when the therapist does understand how it truly feels to be in another person’s world, without wanting or trying to analyse or judge it, then the therapist and the client can truly blossom and grow in that climate.”
This technique requires counsellors have the right understanding of empathy. Clients who came to the counsellor might bring his subjective thoughts about world, which of course is different from the counsellor’s point of view. From the description of the client, either through language or through movements of his body, the counsellor should strive to understand the subjective world of his clients, so he can feel, perceive and experience the feeling that faced by the client. As guidance teacher one should apply this technique in each of the problems faced by students if they have any problems. Teachers need to show the love to students like Hassan, because he needs to be given proper approach and attention in order for him to resolve his problem.
Based on Hassan’s case, he is feeling nervous and is worried because he always has the irrational thoughts that he must obtain high scores in his presentation as he was in his former school, thus being empathy may help him to assist his problem. The way I approach him will be like “So you are feeling nervous and worried at this time because you are thinking to maintain your performance of getting high scores for your presentation”. Showing empathy like this can show that I understand of his situation and he might feel comfortable to share his problem with me further.
On top of that, as guidance teacher I must listen with empathy when Hassan is telling his problem to me. Listening with empathy means that the teacher realizes that even the problem or situation is hard to accept, but teacher must shows concern and offers help if needed. Teacher must reflect and think back whether the decisions decided may fail but this can help Hassan to reduce his anxiety problem.

            2.4 COUNSELING SKILLS
            As guidance teacher, the knowledge of basic counselling skills is important as it takes counselling skills to make effective therapy. Basic counseling skills allows teacher and student to have an interpersonal communication which then make the counseling approaches a success. Communication is a process by which the transferring of information occurs between two people. With the correct counselling skills used by teachers the process of attending student’s problem becomes easier. Interpersonal communication involves communicating face to face and it occurs in a specific environment or in groups. Its main function is to listen, speak, and resolve conflicts.
            Interpersonal communication differs from verbal communication to the non-verbal. Verbal communication is communication that involves the use of speech in face to face situations. It is the most effective communication process; it allows the exchange of thoughts happen quickly. While non-verbal communication is the delivery of messages through gestures, such as hand gestures, head movements, facial expressions and so on. For example, a nod to possibly indicate an encouragement affirmation and showing a sour face depicting anger or worry.
            Counselling process involves the five main structures such as rapport and relationship building, assessment or problem definition, goal setting, initiating interventions and termination. The basic counseling skills will be discussed in relation to the counseling process structures.
The first process by which a counsellor must undergo in the counseling session is the rapport and relationship building. Counseling process involves the relationship between the counsellor and his client in order to solve the problem faced by the client. Thus the client needs to feel attached and have good mutual relationship with the counsellor. This can help the client to feel free to express the feeling and the problem he or she has. Hence a counsellor must acquire the skill very well to determine the success of the treatment.
Based on the cased discussion of Hassan’s case, the process of building relationship must not occur by force. The relationship must be built through the correct use of techniques where the counsellor shows kindness, empathy as well as giving appropriate encouragement. Therefore, through the honesty showed by the counsellor will help Hassan to feel safe and secure and eventually help him to resolve the effects of his irrational thoughts.
Among others situation can be seen is where teacher is using attending skills with Hassan. This skill can help Hassan to tell his story. As the communication goes along, the counsellor can draw out the appropriate background and contextual information. Basic attending skills also will help counsellor to demonstrate empathy and provide emotional support to Hassan. Hence Hassan will slowly grow trust on the counsellor as the counsellor attend to his problem with respect and accept him the way he is and not giving him any judgement. Counsellor can positively build good rapport by accepting Hassan without any condition.
In relation to this process of building rapport, active listening can be fallen into this category where guidance teacher can use the skill of active listening to establish good relationship with Hassan. Like what has been mentioned before, active listening involves the attending skill by which it is expressing awareness and interest in what the client is communicating both verbally and nonverbally. Attending may help Hassan to feel more relax and comfortable to express his thoughts and feelings in his own way. This also may lead to grow trust to the counsellor. Whenever Hassan tries to talk and express his feeling, counsellor can use a variety of brief encouragements such as “Um-hm” or “Yes,” or observing his body language.
Next, when mutual understanding and the building of relationship have been established, the counsellor can start using probing skill in Hassan’s case. Counsellor can use a question to direct his attention to explore his situation in greater depth. A probing question should be open-ended for example, “Tell me about the feelings you have been having at this time?” and “Are you worried because you won’t get good scores?”. Probing may encourage Hassan to elaborate, clarify, or illustrate what he has been saying. It also may enhance Hassan’s awareness and understanding of his situation and feelings. Through this skill, counsellor and Hassan can know areas that need attention.
Counsellor must use appropriate language when dealing with Hassan. At this point, Hassan really needs someone that can assure him that everything is going to be fine. Using appropriate language with correct intonation, Hassan can accept the advice given by the counsellor as well as creating a calm and friendly atmosphere. This is important as good communication starts with the correct use of language. In addition, the counsellor must ensure that Hassan’s parents use suitable language at home to ensure the good performance of Hassan in the future. For example, the counsellor can say to Hassan “I am concern about you and very happy to listen to you.”
As a guidance teacher, one must establish good relationships with his or her student in the beginning of the counseling session so the treatment process can be continued in smoothly with friendly atmosphere. This relationship can be achieved when feelings of empathy in which teachers can understand the feelings of his students. Besides, being empathy to Hassan also one of the skills to build good rapport. The counsellor should strive to show empathy to Hassan so he would feel the trust and respect and believe that his teacher is really understanding, listening and cares about his feelings. By having the feeling of empathy and good rapport between counsellor and Hassan, the effectiveness of counselling treatment can be forged and sustained throughout the counseling process.
The process of assessing problem involves some specific skills including observation, inquiry, and as well as recording the information. By referring to Hassan’s case, counsellor can use the skill observation by observing his general state of anxiety and note the gestures and movements that show emotional condition. Counsellor also can note how Hassan frames his problem. Hassan’s case may not need formal assessment to identify his problem. The counsellor must realize the skills needed so that he or she knows what problem does Hassan faced. The suitable questions that may be used are such as “What cause you feeling nervous and worried?”, “Have you ever feel this way before?” or “How is it impacting your performance?”. Sometimes counsellor must pay attention to the health of the client. Counsellor can ask Hassan, “How do you feel today?” “Health habits?”. These questions are important as sometimes Hassan’s health habits can affect the way he thinks and acts. Probably if Hassan has poor health habits or might having some health issues, the irrational thoughts also could be influenced by them.
The aim of assessment and problem definition is to identify the problem. Thus counsellor also can use paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is when the counsellor restates the content of the client’s previous statement. Through the communication with Hassan, counsellor can restates what has been said by Hassan. This is to clarify so that counsellor can identify the real state of problem and can find solutions for it. Paraphrasing uses words that are similar to the client’s, but fewer. The purpose of paraphrasing is to communicate to the client that you understand what he or she is saying. Through this skill, counsellor can verify the perceptions of Hassan’s statements and can eventually highlight the issue. On top of that, paraphrasing helps Hassan to realise that the counsellor understands what he is saying and clarify his remarks as well as focus on what is important and relevant.
Goal setting is part of counselling process structure where the counsellor determines whether how well the counselling is working. Besides, this process also enables the counsellor to prevent the dependent relationship. Counsellor also can think of what type of intervention needed to be used. Under this process, counsellor can use summarising as this skill enables the counsellor to understand the situation faced by the client. In this case study, counsellor can summarize what Hassan said and think of what they need to do or what type of intervention suitable to solve the problem. It is an important way for the counsellor to gather together what has already been said, make sure that Hassan has been understood correctly, and prepare him to move on.
Summarising also helps the counsellor to focus for the session and confirm Hassan’s perceptions. This skill also will help Hassan to figure out himself that realise that the counsellor understands and have a sense of movement and progress. Therefore by using this skill, counsellor and Hassan know what to do next and try to figure out the best solution to clear his irrational thoughts.
The intervention process must be related to problem. The selection of intervention may become an adaptive process. Counsellor must have competency and knowledge with the intervention. Under this process, counsellor also needs to acquire the skills of processing. Based on Hassan’s case, counsellor is thinking about the observations about Hassan and what he has communicated. Through this skill, counsellor can think of what type of intervention or solution is suitable to curb the problem. Processing also allows the counsellor to mentally process the following data: Hassan’s beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and expectations.
Apart from that, responding is also a skill that a counsellor must acquire in order to initiate any kind of intervention. Responding is the skill by which the act of communicating information to the client that includes providing feedback and emotional support, addressing issues of concern, and teaching skills. Through this responding skill, counsellor can use an affective responding style which refers to focusing on feelings. While behavioural responses enable the counsellor to focus on the actions and behaviours while cognitive response give chance to counsellor to focus on the thoughts and cognitions. Counsellor will balance these responses throughout the session and finally decided what type of solution or intervention to be used.

            As a guidance teacher, we need to be aware of every problem that faced by our students. The correct use of theory is crucial to determine what techniques are suitable to be used to deal with Hassan’s problem. The theory chosen to address the case is person-centered theory which proposed by Carl Rogers. While two techniques used are unconditional positive regard and empathy. These two techniques are discussed in relation to the theory. The unconditional positive regard technique is referring to the therapist acceptance and caring, but not approval of all behaviour. While empathy is the ability to understand what the client is feeling and emotions. This refers to the therapist’s ability to understand sensitively and accurately but not sympathetically towards the client’s experience and feelings. As a guidance teacher, the knowledge of basic counselling skills is important as it take counselling skills to make effective counseling. Basic counseling skills allows teacher and student to have an interpersonal communication which then make the counselling approaches a success.

During the completing of this task, various challenges and obstacles I had gone through. It is undeniable that the topics discussed in this coursework are very important as it is applicable to me as a teacher. But I realized that in order to become educator, I must face such many sacrifices in order to become an outstanding educator. Through this assignment, various useful inputs I have gained such experience while answering the task questions conforming to the case study about a student named Hassan. He faced nervousness and worries because of his irrational thoughts.
As a guidance teacher, we need to be aware of every problem that faced by our students. The correct use of theory is crucial to determine what techniques are suitable to be used to deal with Hassan’s problem. The theory chosen to address the case is person-centered theory which proposed by Carl Rogers. While two techniques used are unconditional positive regard and empathy. These two techniques are discussed in relation to the theory. The unconditional positive regard technique is referring to the therapist acceptance and caring, but not approval of all behaviour. While empathy is the ability to understand what the client is feeling and emotions. This refers to the therapist’s ability to understand sensitively and accurately but not sympathetically towards the client’s experience and feelings.
As a guidance teacher, the knowledge of basic counselling skills is important as it take counselling skills to make effective counseling. Basic counseling skills allows teacher and student to have an interpersonal communication which then make the counselling approaches a success.
Through this case study, a many ups and downs experience I had confronted as I need to read in depth of the theories in counselling. I had to choose the suitable theory in order to address the case. The most challenging part is I had to burn the midnight oil to complete the task and stay up late at night to write better coursework. Among the problems faced by me in completing this assignment is my difficulty in determining the appropriate theory to be applied in the Hassan case. Everyone knows that there are many theories in counseling process that can be applied such as psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory, the theory of therapy, behaviour therapy, rational- emotive therapy, electrical therapy and others. I have done some reading and attempted to discuss with my colleagues about the theories and techniques to be used in this case study, I finally decided to use person-centered theory to address the case. 
Apart from that, I faced some problem in carrying out this task because the sources of the material is quite limited and I need to do further reading about it. As I am in practicum phase 3, then I had to spend some time to discuss and talk to my friends at school and had no time to discuss with lecturers. Thus the reference material to be used is also very limited. I borrowed some of my friends’ books to do references.
Through this assignment, I found that my understanding of guidance and counseling is increasing, especially with respect to theories of counseling. Maybe before my understanding in relation to this theory a bit blurry but after doing this assignment I found myself I can understand know how to address students’ problem in school if I have the chance to address one.
In addition, I believe in being a guidance teacher, the knowledge of guidance and counseling is very important in order to be a good teacher in the future.  Through this assignment I know how to tackle the troubled students through the application of guidance and counseling theories and techniques. I can say that this task is very helpful and give a positive impression on me in shaping my identity as an educator who will guide students in the school later on.
            Based on the assignment, I noticed that my understanding of the topic become so much better. I learn to compare and contrast between theories in counseling and choose the suitable theory to address certain issues. Not all issues can be addressed using the same theory. Thus by doing this task, I learn more and can decide which is the best and know what the suitable basic counselling skills to be used are.
            Furthermore, after completing this assignment, I personally think that learning such theories give me some input to be applied in actual classroom situation. All in all, this assignment has taught me some examples on how to cope with students and plan a good intervention and provide me with the necessary skills to cope with student’s problem. Also as teacher we should be aware of the variety of counselling skills so that I can manage my students in order to enhance the education system in the school and increase students’ performances in the long run.


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Mearns, P., & Thorne, B. (1988). Person-Centred Counselling in Action (Counselling
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Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and
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Rogers, C. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships
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Rogers, C. (1975). Emphatic: An unappreciated way of being. The counselling
psychologist, 5(2), 2-10.

Palmer, S. (2000). Multicultural Counselling: A Reader. London: SAGE Publications.

McLeod, S. A. (2008). Person Centered Therapy. Retrieved from

Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (2012). Prelimanary Report Malaysia Education Retrieved on February 23rd  2015.


   Malaysian education system is evolving and changing over time. The changes and transformation that happened in recent years are to make realize the country’s achievement in the future. Malaysia has a long term vision usually referred to as ‘Vision 2020’ which emphasises on the development of productivity and critical thinking workforce. Information Communication Technology (ICT) has changed the way teaching and learning in education all over the world. Many countries have realised how important the ICT is to the development of a country. Thus, Malaysian education has also implemented ICT based education in the curriculum.

      The usage of ICT has increasingly raising the awareness among the rural community. The idea is to integrate responsive and localised community content into the curriculum and enable everyone to get access to the information. ICT indeed has led to new possibilities in development and dissemination of information. However, the current state of living standard in Malaysia is intolerable to the usage of the ICT. The rich will enjoy the benefits of technology and for the poor they will just rely on the facilities provided in the school rather than having one at home.

     In Malaysia, under the Smart School project, the selected schools will be equipped with computer facilities by the end of 2005. The government has put a lot of effort to upgrade all the schools in the country to become smart school. The schools serves as learning institution that have systematically reinvented in terms of teaching-learning practices and school management to prepare children with Information Age and to promote the goal of the National Philosophy of Education. It is one of the seven flagships applications that are part of Malaysia’s Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project. But how many of teachers in such schools will rely solely in using ICT in the classroom?. The usage of ICT in Smart School is also questionable as the ICT should not take over the teacher in the classroom. The teachers should use the ICT to help them deliver the lesson. It should not be otherwise.

            Most universities in all over the world have implemented web-based application. The electronic learning (e-learning) also has change the way teaching and learning of the learning institutions. The e-learning is supported by ICT, internet, intranet, TV, CD-ROMS and many more. The implementation of the e-learning in the education is a part of the strategies to catch up with other developed countries around the world. In Malaysia the Ministry of Education and YTL has introduced the 1BEstariNet project. Every parent, student and teacher has been provided with an ID that enables access to a variety of tools that create a more exciting and interesting learning experience.

EDU 3093 Teacher & Current Challenges

Sample Assignment

            The teaching profession is one of the professions that is really challenging in terms of physically or mentally. This can be seen through the work load that a teacher has to do at the school. According to Lieberman (1956), profession refers to a type of work that has a great social function. One must have certain skills, experience and knowledge to be good a certain works. A teacher is not only teaching, but to educate, to simplify and to change a person to become someone that is useful to the community and the country in the future. Teachers play a role of parents at school to guide and educate children. The roles of teachers today become even more challenging when dealing with children of different background and learning styles.
            Challenge can be defined as the situation of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person's ability ( The challenges that teachers face today are not the same the way previous teachers had faced. In today’s education, teachers are expected to not only imparting the knowledge in the classroom, they need to play multiple roles in facilitating the learning and able to produce teaching and learning effectively and efficiently. In line with the changes in education system, teacher must be more innovative, creative and effective in structuring the lesson as well as provide the best education to suits the needs of the students.
            Malaysian education system is evolving and changing over time. The changes and transformation that happened in recent years are to make realize the country’s achievement in the future. The curriculum transformation makes the teaching profession become more challenging. Thus, teachers must equip themselves with necessary skills and improve on the teaching and learning techniques from time to time in order to provide education at the par excellent.


            During the practicums period, I too faced challenges and stress at the schools. The challenges and stress I faced based on he teaching practice experience at the three different persepectives; personal, school and national level.
Figure 1: The three different perspectives of challenges and stress


            One of the challenges that I faced was time management. Management is the activity that we do based on the strategy and rules as well as followed by the responsibilities of the people in an organization. As a teacher, time management is very important. Good time management enables teachers to plan the activities and lesson smoothly. During the practicum period, I had difficult time with works and thus affecting my time management. Sometimes it may seem that there is not enough time to do everything that you need to. This can lead to a build up of stress. The lesson planning also one of the contributing factors to my challenge because I need enough time to think and write the lesson plan. Without proper planning, my lessons will fall apart and the objectives cannot be achieved.
            In the classroom for instance, the allocated time for each stage in the lesson often become a problem to me, because I could not follow the time correctly. Sometimes the activities planned required more time from what has been set. Thus this also affects the teaching and learning process in the class. Time is precious in the school indeed. With the projects and assignments that I had to do, I did not have enough time to review my lessons properly and the teaching aids also sometimes were not suitable with the lessons. I was really disappointed with myself. It took me few weeks to adjust myself with the current state of teaching profession in the school.
            In today’s education, teachers are expected to not only imparting the knowledge in the classroom, they need to play multiple roles in facilitating the learning and able to produce lessons effectively and efficiently. Hence, correct timing and effective strategy must be looked upon among all the teachers in school. In line with the changes in education system, teacher must be more innovative, creative and effective in structuring the lesson as well as provide the best education to suits the needs of the students.


The challenge that I experienced based on the persepective of the school during the practicum is concerned with aspect of the relationship between teachers at school. For me, the effort to make contact with fellow teachers at the school is a great challenge because I am new to the school and a practical teacher. As a trainee teacher at the school I need to build good rapport with the teachers and be polite all the time. In order for me to survive at the school is to be nice and seek help and advice from the senior teachersl. By doing so I could understand how the working culture in the school be like so that I can be ready for any circumstance.
The relationship among the teachers in the school where I was doing my practicum was bad. Some of the teachers were sitting in groups and forming their own colleagues. This culture should not be happening in any working place because I personally think that it will affect the way we work and the organization itself. Besides that, I was placed in the corner of the staff room where I hardly spoken to the other teachers. Some of the teacher were hardly had time to talk and getting to know each other. This can be seen when I was asking about the English panel of the school during my first day at the school, there was this teacher who said she does not know that English teacher I was looking for. She refused to tell me which one was the English teacher and made me find the teacher myself. It was sad seeing a teacher who has that kind of attitude. To me the situation shows that the realationship among the teachers were not good.
The communication among the teachers was not good. I could see this during the meeting. While the headmaster was talking, some teachers were busy with their gadjets and when they were ask to explain about something, they harldy open their mouth and showed no interest in the meeting. There were times when the teachers had argument about their duties in school.


Malaysian education system is evolving and changing over time. The changes and transformation that happened in recent years are to make realize the country’s achievement in the future. The curriculum transformation makes the teaching profession become more challenging.
            It is the aspiration of the MOE to ensure that students reach their full potential. Therefore every teacher in the school has many roles to play in ensuring that the six aspirations in the PPPM are met. The Malaysian Education Blueprint will continue to look at the National Education Philosophy’s vision as its foundation for the students aspirations. The six key attributes needed by every student to be globally competitive are namely the emphasis on the element of knowledge, thinking skills, leadership, bilingual proficiency, ethics and spirituality, and national identity. Each of these elements also emphasizes the effort to enable all students to contribute significantly to the institution of family, community and country.
            One of the challenges is the ‘Kurrikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah’ (KSSR), The Malaysian Education Blueprint, Memperkasa Bahasa Melayu Memartabat Bahasa Inggeris (MBMMBI), Sekolah Kluster Kecemerlangan, Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi (SBT) and many more. The challenge for teachers in school is to make sure the policy is being carried out and achieve the objectives based on the allocated time. Teachers in school sometimes burdern with works overloaded and this can cause stress among them. To make sure the teaching and learning is running smoothly, teacher must consider many aspects especially the background of students. Today, the high order thinking skilss has been introduced and students are trained to be critical in many aspects. However, teacher must ensure that the students are ready and the successful of the strategy also depends on what type of students we are dealing with. Thus it is a challenge for the teacher to set high order thinking skills questions for the rural school.
            Most teachers are stress out because there are so many things to do in limited time. Teacher now also as to be active with virtual learning called ‘Frog VLE’ that has been recently introduced to the school. Senior teacher who has limited skills about ICT may encounter problems in using the system. The technology-based era has made the role of teacher to become even more challenging. To help students to learn better, a teacher must have skills such as communication skills, skills in using technology and skills to make realize the policies.. Best practices in teaching will also help teachers to achieve the attribute that needed for the students as stated in the PPPM.

            It is very important for teachers to be able to handle challenges and stress especially in school. To overcome the challenge, one must develop effective strategies for managing the time and balance the conflicting demands of time for assignments, lesson plans, leisure, and other works in the school. Time management skills are valuable in teaching profession and also in many other aspects of life. According to Harison and Kilion (2007), the ways teachers can lead are varied as teachers themselves. Teacher must know how to lead him or herself, especially in management of time. A teacher who knows how to manage time can be role model to the students. Sometimes there are many things to be done in a limited time, thus this will cause stress. Once we know how to improve the management of our time, we can start to adjust our routines and patterns of behavior to reduce the stress.
            Apart from that, we need to prioritize our important tasks rather than that are not important. I believe that everyone has a planner book, so make use of it by organizing the work and do a list making to remind us of what need to do. To be an effective teacher, we need to decide what tasks are important and list the tasks we have and to sort these in order of priority, and then to devote most time to the most important tasks. This will help us to tackle most of our work and the time management problem can be reduced.
            Furthermore, good relationship among the teachers has impact on the school itself. Rapport is the foundation for any relationship. To overcome the issues of relationship of teachers in the school, everybody needs to work on the team building spirit and understand each other. Besides that, we should help each other. As a trainee teacher I can offer help and always seek for advice from the senior teachers at school. Generally, everybody needs to be praised and recognition, thus we must encourage ourselves to always give compliment, avoid criticism and be polite. In order to have agreat working team, we must always establish positive relationship with each other.
            Besides, teachers cannot work alone, we need to work collaboratively with peers and administrators. As stated in Malaysian Teacher Standard one of the aspects under professional teaching is social domain. In order for me to become a good teacher, we need to have good communication skills so that we can socialize better with other experienced teachers. Hence, as a trainee teacher, I need to learn more and exposed myself to the real situation so that I can become more aware of how the profession works in order to develop myself in the long run.
Teachers always encounter problems regarding the curriculum design in school. The policies made by the ministry sometimes are hard to be implemented to schools that lack of facilities. Other than that, some teachers in school do not have enough skills in technology, so the online learning cannot be done smoothly at school. To overcome this, teachers can attend courses and do some reading. Teaching is not only about imparting the knowledge, but also supporting students to develop their knowledge and competence. A good teacher will use a range of techniques and skills to ensure that what and how they teach recognises the needs of the students  and meets the learning outcomes that has been set in the curriculum. The teaching techniques include planning for a lesson, finding out prior knowledge and skills and using relevant examples that can be relate with the learner. The technology-based era has made the role of teacher to become a facilitator and mentor. To help students to learn better, a facilitator must have skills such as communication skills, skills in using technology and skills to motivate students. Best practices in teaching will help teachers to make realize the attribute that needed for the students as stated in the PPPM.
Towle (1948), stated that the aim of education is to convey knowledge in such a way that the student may not merely possess it but use it. Likewise in the school, teacher should encourage students to continue learning and use the knowledge they have learned in school in their daily lives. The challenges that a teacher faces in school should not be a burdern but take it as turning point to improve self and be a great educator. The understanding and knowledge of a person are constructed through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. Thus teacher must practise and apply the knowledge as well as experiencing with it. In the classroom, teacher and students also must work together in order to let pupils to construct the knowledge and understanding by themselves through range of activities.

            To be an expert in the profession, teachers need to always seek knowledge and improve themselves from time to time. The challenges and stress should be handled properly. Every cicumstances that happened throughout the teaching career must take into account and be professional in handling such challenges. Teachers need to become lifelong learners as knowledge keeps on evolving. Teachers play many roles in school to develop young Malaysians who are knowledgeable, think critically and creatively, have leadership skills and are able to communicate with the rest of the world. Just as importantly, students must be educated with values, ethics and a sense of nationhood, enabling them to make the right choices for themselves, their families and the country with a view towards enduring and overcoming life’s inevitable challenges. Teachers must equip themselves with necessary skills and improve on the teaching and learning techniques from time to time in order to achieve the six attribute that needed by very students as outline in Malaysian Education Blueprint. Personal learning plan is needed by every teacher to be to increase knowledge and improve the standard of education to higher degree.